Institut National Polytechnique De Grenoble

Hydraulic Machines and Hydroelectricity


Iowa State Course Substitution

ME Technical Elective


Course Info
International Credits:
Converted Credits:
Course Description:
Hydraulic Machines and Hydroelectricity - 5EUS5MHH Goals The courses are based on theoretical, experimental and numerical approaches to training engineering students to treat industrial key concepts of hydraulic machinery including turbines and hydraulic storage issues. The problems related to the coupling betwwen turbines and grid will also be presented. The participation of industrial partners will give a pragmatic view of the methods used, as well as will present the issues and the challenges. Contact Henda DJERIDI Content INTRODUCTION Hydraulic Machinery: definition, functions, challenges Course objectives Pre requisites Part 1: HYDROELECTRICITY CHAPTER I: HYDROPOWER IN THE GLOBAL ENERGETIC SCENARIO I.1. Energetic balance: consumption in the World and in Europe; production cost of electricity I.2. Hydroelectricity: some orders of magnitude I.3. Hydroelectricity in France I.4. Growth forecast I.5. Benefits of Hydropower I.6. Markets I.7. Key actors I.8. Issues and technical challenges I.9. Uncertainties ABOUT US STUDIES RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES STUDENT LIFE Number of hours Lectures : 40.0 Tutorials : 8.0 Laboratory works : 4.0 ECTS : 5.0 Page 1 CHAPTER II: HYDROELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS II.1. Classifications II.2. Types of developments II.3. Accumulation capacity II.4. Power plant equipments II.5. Civil engineering works II.6. Electric and mechanical equipment CHAPTER III: SMALL HYDROELECTRICITY III.1. Introduction III.2. Pump as Turbine PAT III.3. Turbine selection III.3.a Gross and net head as a function of the flow rate III.3.b Turbines efficiency curves III.3.c Turbine-generator group rotation speed III.3.d Turbine implantation III.3.e Way to follow for preliminary selection III.4. Case study Part 2: TURBOMACHINERIES CHAPTER I: THEORY OF TURBOMACHINERIES Energy exchanges in a turbomachinery: Flow around an isolated profile Analogy between profiles and blades Some examples of physical analysis Velocity polygon Euler's formula: Application in the pump direction Application to the entire runner Energy interpretation of Euler's relation Bernoulli in rotating frame: Rothalpy Application on pump direction: Relation head-discharge Power, efficiency and losses Power balance in a pump runner Application on turbine direction: Example of velocity triangle in a turbine (Francis or Kaplan) Relation head-discharge: H x Q theoretical curve Runaway speed Power balances in a turbine runner Efficiency hill Reminders: Machine characteristic Machines grouping (series / parallel) Page 2 CHAPTER II: SIMILARITY LAWS IN TURBOMACHINERIES Similitude theory Similitude in turbomachineries: Geometric similarity Kinematic similarity Dynamic similarity and general laws (based on Euler's relation) Dimensionless parameters: Coefficient of discharge Specific energy coefficient Reduced variables Specific speed and diameter Impeller geometry as a function of specific speed Scale effects and " Step up " equations Standard conditions Scaling of the fluid Similitude about cavitation phenomenon (see Chapter V) CHAPTER III: IMPULSE TURBINES Little History Pelton Turbines (high water head): General description Operation principle Jet velocity evaluation in a Pelton turbine Power and efficiency hill Specific Speed Rotation: Increase of the Pelton turbines power Discharge regulation Constraints and fatigue of Pelton turbines Wear/repairs of Pelton turbines Banki-Mitchell Turbines (or Crossflow turbines) (small hydroelectric plants) Turgo Turbines (small hydroelectric plants) CHAPTER IV: REACTION TURBINES Little History Francis Turbines: Different parts Flow in spiral casings Guide vanes and stay vanes Security systems The impeller Mechanical conception Overall disposition Production technology The draft tube Turbines Francis operating: Compressed air station Load variations Page 3 Runaway speed Kaplan and Propeller Turbines: Description Mechanical production: Distributor Rotating parts Draft tube Working as an unloader Blades mechanism Bulb Turbines: Description Mechanical design: Stay guide vanes Conical distributor Other Turbine Geometries Characteristic Curves, Efficiency Hills Specific Speed of Different Turbines Turbine/Alternator Coupling CHAPTER V: CAVITATION The phenomenon Cavitation erosion Erosion and materials Cavitation and flow Vortex rope Cavitation in blade suction side Cavitation in blade pressure side Cavitation due to turbulence Unsteady and instable phenomena Some problems and solutions Net Positive Suction Head CHAPTER VI: FLOWS IN TURBOMACHINERIES Introduction Stability Criteria Steady and unsteady flows: Unsteadiness related to the operating point: surge, rotating stall, floating,cavitation Periodical Unsteadiness: Rotor-Stator Interaction Flow structures: Axial machines Radial and mixed flow machines Resonance Problems: Origin Examples Protection and control CHAPTER VII: HYDROELECTRIC STORAGE Page 4 1. Introduction 2. Current balance 3. PSP in France 4. Pump-turbines 5. Characteristic curves of pump-turbines 6. Scientific and technological challenges 7. Variable speed 8. Conclusions Prerequisites courses 2A: Turbulence Fluid mechanics Hydraulic of pressurized ducts Tests Semester 5 - The exam is given in english only Final exam (CT): written exam 2 hours Continuous assessment (CC): 20% lab work, 40% written presentation of research papers 40% CT + 60% CC Additional Information Semester 5 - This course is given in english only Course list Curriculum->->Semester 5 Curriculum->->Semester 5 Curriculum->Engineer ME->Semester 5 Curriculum->ENTECH->Semester 5 Bibliography [1] Handout « Machines Hydrauliques », ENSE3, G INP by JL KUENY [2] « Aménagements Hydroélectriques », Techniques de l'Ingénieur, traité Génie mécanique, B4405 by André L. JAUMOTTE and Pierre DECOCK [3] « Petites centrales hydrauliques », Techniques de l'Ingénieur, traité Génie électrique BM 4 166, S. Page 5 × PERRIN [4] « Turbines Hydrauliques », Techniques de l'Ingénieur, traité Génie mécanique, B4407 , A. JAUMOTTE and al. [5] « L'énergie hydraulique », by R. GINOCCHIO, Eyrolles 1978 [6] « Hydraulique des écoulements en charge », Course 2A, R. Fortes Patella. [7] « Les coups de bélier et la protection des réseaux d'eau sous pression », M. MEUNIER, ENGREF, 1980 [8] « Fluid transients, C. JAEGER », Blackie & Son, 1977 [9] « Mémento des Pertes de Charge », I.E. IDEL'CIK, Ed. Eyrolles, 1960 [10] « Petites centrales hydrauliques : Turbines hydrauliques », Programme d'action PACER - Energies renouvelables, Office fédéral des questions conjoncturelles, ISBN 3-905232-54-5, 1995. [11] « Turbines hydrauliques : fonctionnement », Techniques de l'Ingénieur, traité Génie mécanique, BM 4406 by Louis Raphaël EREMEEF. Boussuges P. "Cours de Machines Hydrauliques", Polycopié ENSHMG Brun R., Zulzi de Zouza, « Maquinas de Fluxo », Ao livro technico S/A Rio de Janeiro, 1969 Ouziaux R. et Perrier J. "Mécanique des Fluides appliquée", tome 1 et 2, Dunod, 1972 Stépanoff A. J., "Pompes Centrifuges et Pompes Hélices", Dunod, 1961 Raabe J.,"Hydraulishe Maschinen un Anlagen", VDI Verlag Gmbh, 1989 Raabe J., "Hydro-Power", VDI Verlag Gmbh, 1985 Schulhof, "Les stations de pompage de l'eau", Lavoisier -Tec & Doc 1991 Turton R.K., "Principles of Turbomachinery", E. & F.N. Spon Ltd, 1984 VERSION FRANÇAISE Voir la version française de cette page Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Energie, l'Eau et l'Environnement 21 avenue des Martyrs CS 90624 38031 GRENOBLE CEDEX 1 To improve the quality of this site and the service rendered to the user, we use cookies audience measurement. By continuing your visit to this site, you agree to our use of cookies for this purpose. More


Evaluation Date:
November 1, 2017
The content taught in this course is similar in difficulty to material taught in a graduate level class. The prerequisite for this class is ME 335. The student must take ME 335 at ISU PRIOR to taking this class at Grenoble INP. This course will not come back as a mechanical engineering technical elective if the student has not taken ME 335 at ISU before taking this class at Grenoble INP.